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Birobidzhans chronology starts in 1912, when the tsar ordered to inhabit territories, neighbouring to Amur railway. Many settlements appeared on the Russian map, and a minor railway station Tikhonkaya among them.

In 1928 the Tikhonkaya settlement hosted 623 inhabitants with 237 scattered houses, a primary school, a post office and a shop. The settlement was the arrival point for migrants, accepting 856 new citizens during one year. First artels appeared in 1928 and started producing various goods (clothes, shoes and bricks) using local materials.

Artisanal artels started functioning in 1931 blacksmiths, coopers, carpenters, potters, clothes and hosiery makers, suit case makers and etc. Construction of a woodworking plant also began. In October 1931, the Tikhonkaya settlement obtained a working settlement status and a new name: Birobidzhan, which was derived from two words Bira (a river) and Bidzhan (last camping ground).

January 1st of 1932 brought following population figures: 1216 men and 1324 women. The working settlement had a power plant, a brick works, various artels, state woodworks and a clothes plant, and a Jewish pedagogical school. Population of Birobidzhan was educated in a primary school and in a seven-year school. Other facilities included a five-bed hospital, an ambulance station, a pharmacy, a nursery, a public library, two clubs, a post office and three commercial establishments.

In 1933 the settlement had following construction sites: House of the Soviets, a power plant, furniture plant, tractor station, laundry enterprise and House of Communications. Later more facilities were added: the orphan asylum, Jewish ten-grades standard school, Soviet party school, three children's playgrounds and extramural medical workers faculty of Khabarovsk Medical Institute. Library of Birobidzhan stored 20 000 volumes, and telephone communication started penetrating the settlement in 1933.

Cultural burst began in 1934, when publication of regional newspapers in Jewish and Russian languages, as well as the literature and social magazine, was launched. The same year Kaganovich State Jewish Theatre was opened. The settlement also had several industrial enterprises furniture, bricks, clothes were made locally.

At those times Birobidzhan was a railway distribution centre, where goods for the whole region arrived. By the end of 1935 the settlements population reached 12 000. Comfortable life in the settlement was limited by 20 kilometres of streets, where only 1 kilometre was paved, and 1 kilometre was illuminated with 10 lamps. In March 1937 the order of Soviet government made the working settlement Birobidzhan the town.

Local authorities paid attention to new towns improvement new streets were made and paved, green trees were planted in some districts and etc. The town acquired wooden and stone residential houses, a large hospital, a cinema and other signs if a civilised life.

Today the city of Birobidzhan is the centre of Jewish Autonomous Area and accommodates over 100 000 people. Birobidzhan is a boiling pot of nationalities and welcomes people of various cultural traditions.

Sights of Birobidzhan

Kuldur settlement local resort with mineral water springs, located in the valley of the river, bearing the same name.

Bastak nature reserve area

Russkaya Polyana(Russian Meadow) - a picturesque place with hills and lakes, surrounded by endless bogs. Many beautiful place can be found along the river Amur.

Tyoplie Kluchi settlement lovely valley of the Bidzhan river, with fishermen huts and bee-gardens natural life as it is.

Volochaevsky memorial museum commemorates the largest battle of the Civil war, which ever took place at the Far East. That battle established Soviet regime at the Far East.




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