Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, historically known as Yugra, is a constituent entity of the Russian Federation as part of the Tyumen Region. It affiliates the Ural Federal District.
Situated in the middle part of Russia, Yugra takes the central part of the West Siberian Plain. It borders on the Yamalo-Nenetz Autonomous Area, the Krasnoyarsk Area, the Tyumen Region, the Tomsk Region, the Sverdlovsk Region and Komi Republic.
The administrative centre of the area is the city of Khanty-Mansiisk. Other major cities are Surgut, Nizhnevartovsk, and Nizhneyugansk.
Yugra is the foremost oil and gas area of Russia and one of the biggest oil-bearing regions in the world. It is among the donor-regions of Russia and is in the lead by a whole range of major economical indicators. It ranks first in production of oil and electric energy, as well as industrial output. However, the natural environment is not favourable for agriculture. So the majority of agricultural and food products have to be brought in from other regions of Russia.
The region has a severely continental climate, with long winters and short summers. The average January temperature runs 18 to 24 degree centigrade below zero and the average July temperature is 15 to 18 degree centigrade above zero. The major rivers of the region are Ob’ and Irtysh with their 12 main tributaries.
The population of the region is 1520 thousand people as of 2009, with the density of only 2.8 persons per square kilometer. Overwhelming majority of the habitants lives in the urban area. The economical status of people in Yugra is high as compared to other Russian regions, but living there is hard due to its specific environment.
History. The first records of Yugra in historical chronicles date back to the 11th century. In the early 12th century the citizens of Veliki Novgorod repeatedly travelled Siberia beyond Yugra. From 1265 the Yugra Province was mentioned in manuscripts as Novgrorodian domain that even had to tribute.
In 1364 direct exploration of the eastern hillsides of the Ural was launched by Russians. Upon the annexation of Veliki Novgorod to the Moscow State in 1478 the Yugra land was merged into the Russian state. Siberia was ultimately annexed to the Moscow State after the legendary campaign of Yermak.