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    Orenburg

The city of Orenburg was founded three times between 1735 and 1743. Territories of future Orenburg Region lived a wild and mysterious life nomads shepherded their cattle, merchants form Asia came to trade with dwellers of European part of Russia. That whirlpool was full of small and large battles, robberies and fights, which were commemorated in various legends.

After one of such battles warriors were buried at a cemetery, and that was the place, where later the city was founded.

Peter the Great, who at that time ruled Russia, had many other headaches, and that was why his companions did all the hard work of city foundation. In 1731 Russian empress Anna Ioannovna permitted one of Tatar khans to accept Russian citizenship, and at the same time other influential people emphasized the necessity of building a fortress on the Ural River (previously Yaik River). That fortress should have become an important part of new trade ways to Middle Asia and East.

The project was approved by the Senate, in 1735 the founders begun the construction.

However, bad luck haunted them.

First, the builders chose the place, where the Or river entered the Ural river. That place was low and open to attacks of various robbers and nomads. In 1739 administration decided to move the city to a new place Krasnaya Gora (Mt. Red), about 180 km away the old place, where now another city, Orsk, is located. New place turned out to be poor in materials and have unfavorable climate, and the city was founded for the third, and the last, time, 75 km away from the second site.

The citys name also has several versions of origin, and one of them suggests name Orenburg coming from the river Or, near which the city was founded for the first time.

Orenburg was founded on April 19, 1743 on the high bank of the river Yaik and is still there. The final place was a good choice due to nice conditions for agriculture and convenient arrival for merchants. The city was built according an accurate German-style structure plan. City management also followed the German model. Former nomad land was rapidly inhabited by Russians. Together with Orenburg city the founders constructed many satellite forts and settlements, expecting soldiers, who were the main part of inhabitants, to start farming and feeding themselves. However, soldiers, who didnt have families, refused to become peasants, and at that time Orenburg Cossack forces were born. The empress allowed runaways to move to Orenburg as Cossacks. Steppe territories became inhabited by serf peasants and workers. However, there were few craftsmen in the city, because most of the population was trading. The city grew, turning to a great source of money and power. All that led to frequent riots, which burst due to religious and economical reasons.

Famous Alexander Suvorov gained here a priceless experience of subduing a large revolt in 1773. The city survived many stresses of various intensity. Over 3000 of Orenburg Cossacks participated in the Patriotic War of 1812. February and October of 1917 werent a candy, too. Many building were destroyed, others were expropriated from owners and turned into offices, storages and communal flats.

Soviet regime changed status of the city several times. Between 1920 and 1925 Orenburg was the capital of one of the Soviet autonomous republics, and in 1934 it became the regional centre. During the Great Patriotic war the city was interior, where large enterprises were evacuated.

After the war the city was rapidly reconstructed and flourished ever since.



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Orenburg
  (Orenburg Region)

Cities of the region

    Orsk
    Novotroitsk
    Buzuluk
    Buguruslan
    Gay

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