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    Stary Oskol

Primeval history of Oskol region is restored according archeological findings, and shows that settling process of primitive human beings was a complicated and long one. Human beings successfully settled in @ Oskol region only when they learnt how to make tools from stone and bones, how to control fire and build warm and solid dwellings. Primitive men of Stary Oskol region mostly hunted rein-deer, wild horses, mammoths and so on. When pottery and ceramics appeared, new Stone Age began, which brought ground axes made of granite, jade and bones.

Archives dated between 14 and 17 centuries describe first villages of Stary Oskol region, which appeared at sites of ancient settlements. Oskol is mentioned in various chronicles, books, and science works of those times. Scientists consider the name Oskol to origin from old Slavonic word Oskol, which meant Russian oskolok (splinter in English) and verb oskalyat (means expose in English), since landscape of the region is famous for its irregular relief gullies, hollows and downs are the evidence. Stary Oskol region becomes part of ancient Russia in 9-10 centuries, because of growing military threat from steppe inhabitants. Nomad attacks force Russians to take preventive measures and to build fortifications and fortresses. Oskol citizens defend south-eastern borders of Russian state, and in 1500 Oskol and Oskol region enter Moscow princedom. In the end of 16 century frontier fortress Oskol is built, and new period of Stary Oskol region development begins.

Rich chernozem soils and vast territories give enough food for a family. Rivers are rich in fish, and forests are full of animals, berries and mushrooms perfect conditions for natural economy. Trading and crafts are not quite popular, and land settlement goes very slow. Russian wooden architecture can be seen in residential and household buildings of the town. Stary Oskol dwellers take part in social and political events of that time Time of Troubles, Polish intervention, riots of Bolotnikov and Stepan Razin, all these events have something to do with Oskol region.

In 17 century Stary Oskol is no more a bordering town Russian borders move away and offer perfect opportunities for inhabiting vacant lands and ploughing up virgin lands. Homecrafts start flourishing, and industries develop. Trade objects include honey, bread, wax, bristle and other agricultural and craft products. In 1780 Stary Oskol authorities approve plan and coat-of-arms of the town.

In 18 century Stary Oskol has complete social and economic basis, and its territorial borders remain the same throughout the following century. Industry and trade needs cause opening of the first City Public bank in the second half of 19 century. The city has several primary schools, which are free of charge. Secondary education is given in colleges and gymnasia, where student pay for training.

The city boasts several magnificent churches and cathedrals Bogoyavlensky cathedral (located at the Nizhnyaya Square); Pokrova Presvyatoi Bogoroditsy Church (you can find it where Belgorodskaya and Kosmadamianskaya streets cross) and other eminent monuments of Russian architecture.



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