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    Krasnoyarsk

Krasnoyarsk is founded by Andrey Dubensky in 1624 as a fortress for consolidating Russians on territories, surrounding the Middle Yenisei (large Russian river), and since first days the city has to use diplomacy and weapon to protect itself from Kirghiz dukes, who keep trying to ruin Krasnoyarsk up to 17th century. The fortress is named Krasny Yar (a steep bank of reddish color) due to its position - it was situated against the background of a high and steep bank of the Yenisey composed mainly of red clay.

First dwellers of Krasnoyarsk come as volunteers from the Urals and Western Siberia. Citizens are more literate than average Russians. Hunters, Cossacks and industry-related people show good knowledge of geography, flora and fauna of the region, local tribes, their language, customs and traditions.

Twenties of 18th century bring peaceful life to the banks of Yenisei, which lasts till now. However, neighbouring southern territories, which soils are fertile, are still empty and waiting for settlers. Nearby cities are strong competitors, thus Krasnoyarsk remains small and doesnt develop till Moscow-Siberian road is built. Since this time the city finds itself on the crossroad of important land and water ways. Population inflow is rather small, though. Most popular professions in Krasnoyarsk include leather industry, soap and candle making, sewing clothes, various carpenter activities and icon painting.

Great fire of 1773 leaves only 30 houses in the town, eliminating all fortifications. Cultural development of Krasnoyarsk boosts, and home education becomes very popular. The city also opens public educational institutions. Invention of book printing widens reading possibilities for city dwellers. First Russian public library opens in 1784.

Favourable geographic position in Siberia makes Krasnoyarsk a base station for numerous scientific expeditions of 18th century.

Decembrists make a great contribution to the citys history. Being progressive and well educated, Decembrists actively punch patriarchal life of Krasnoyarsk and make people think about social issues and protest against drawbacks of existing regime. Local intellectuals owe a lot to these political exiles. At the same time public education feels worse. In the middle of the 19th century only two people among 100 can read.

New stage in Krasnoyarsk history begins with the Great Railroad piercing Siberia in the end of 19th century. Trans-Siberian railway connects Siberian cities and enhances connections with European and world markets.

Being the central station of the railway Krasnoyarsk hosts train sheds and Main railway works car shops, blacksmith workshops and many others. Vivid trade and economy promote steam navigation and population growth. First world war causes essential shifts in the towns economy and industry. October revolution affects political activities of the citizens.

20th century brings another cultural explosion to Krasnoyarsk, which becomes one of the most reading cities of Siberia. Working class takes active part in cultural events. However, scientists remain rare birds statistics, geologists, teachers, medics and agronomists occasionally perform science research.

Krasnoyarsk territory is formed in 1934, and situation with economy improves again. New industrial enterprises appear in the area, and Krasnoyarsk lists among largest industrial centers of the USSR. Secondary and primary education dominates among social values. All-Soviet population census on 1959 reveals 25% of Krasnoyarsk citizens to have graduated from secondary or higher educational institution. Ninety libraries, mass media, radio and television form cultural background of the city.

Today Krasnoyarsk hosts many science and research institutions in addition to education and industrial establishments and welcomes visitors.



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