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    Kholmogory

Kholmogory is one of the ancient Russian settlements, located in the north of the country's territories near the White Sea. The settlement is first mentioned in the Russian chronicles in 1138, and is located 76 km away from Arkhangelsk on the left shore of the Kuropolka River, horn of the Severnaya Dvina River.

The name Kholmogory is a collective name, uniting several small dwellings, situated on hills and uplands. Russian word kholmy means hills in English, thus, the word Kholmogory can be interpreted as hilly country. Ancient dwellings of Kholmogory are in fact built above the ground. The word gory means mountains, but ancient people use it for defining shores.

No other Russian village is as famous as Kholmogory. Region of Kholmogory is the cradle of Russian shipbuilding first merchant shipyard in the country is built here by the merchant family Bazheniny. Later the village becomes the centre of dairy cattle breeding, giving the world Kholmogorka cows, famous for enourmous amount of milk each animal gives.

In 1685-1691 the magnificent Spaso-Preobrazhensky cathedral is erected in the village a beautiful monument of architecture, which later serves as a prison for Anna Leopoldovna, Russian governess, and her husband Anton Ulrich.

The day of 19 November 1711 makes Kholmogory world famous this is when future founder and pearl of Russian science, Mikhail Lomonosov, is born. Later a famous sculptor F. Shubin is also born in the village. In 1693 Peter the Great visits the village during his first trip to Arkhangelsk. Another Russian tsar Alexander I spends a night in Kholmogory in 1819.

Population census of 1675 shows 645 draft homesteads, located in the village. In the end of 18th century the Kholmogory village becomes the centre of the district, and in 1781 a nautical school the oldest nautical educational institution of Russia opens its doors here.

To the moment October revolution of 1917 strikes the country, Kholmogory has a district hospital with one doctor, two schools with three teachers, two cathedrals and six churches, a convent and two saloons. In 1929 Kholmogory becomes the centre of the region social sphere of the town starts developing rapidly. Economic base of the town is cattle breeding farm, which sends cattle all around the country. In 1937 famous Otto Schmidt expedition to the North Pole makes a stop in Kholmogory.

Since 1969 annual conference called Lomonosov Readings takes place in Kholmogory its aim is popularizing science and achievements of Mikhail Lomonosov, in particular. Many famous people of that time visit the town cinema actors and cosmonauts, eminent scientists academics, poets and writers.

Northern land has saved traditions and the spirit of the folk art Kholmogory has always been rich in masterpieces of wooden architecture, and handicrafts also flourished here. Kholmogory is also a treasury of folklore folk songs and legends fill the air of the region.



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Kholmogory
  (Arkhangelsk Region)

Cities of the region

    Arkhangelsk
    Kargopol
    Severodvinsk
    Mezen
    Onega

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