Alexis of Russia was the second Russian tsar from the Romanovs’ dynasty, the son of Mikhail Fyodorovich and his second wife Eudoxia.
At the age of 13 Tsarevitch Alexey was solemnly declared to the Russian people, and at the age of 16, having lost his father and mother, he came to the Moscow throne.
He was an active participant of the Council Code of 1649, which became the legislative base for the Russian society for many decades. He actively involved foreign experts into working for Russia. Regiments of “foreign system” received active support under his rule.
The role and significance of the Boyars’ Duma and Assemblies of Land under Aleksey Mikhailovich decreased for good. Convocations of Land Assemblies stopped at all after 1653. The Boyars’ Duma still remained, but inside of it the Close Duma consisting of tsar’s confidants gathered strength. The role of departmental bureaucracy was steadily growing.
During the reign of Aleksey Mikhailovich a church dissent took place, leading to toughening of struggle of the church and the state against Old Believers. In collision with Patriarch Nikon the tendency of establishing priority of the church power over the imperial power was changed.
Aleksey Mikhailovich conducted active foreign policy. All his reign was marked with almost non-stop wars. He undertook measures for rapprochement of patrimonial and manorial land properties, and pursued the policy of mercantilism and protectionism.
Under the reign of Aleksey Mikhailovich numerous public revolts burst out: Stepan Razin's peasant war, Copper and Salt revolts, etc. The borders of Russia extended due to Ukraine, Eastern Siberia, the Far East and other lands, which were annexed to the state.
Aleksey Mikhailovich died at the age of 47 on February, 11th (January, 29th) 1676. One of the reasons of his early aging was his fatness, excessive even by Moscow standards of that time.