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 Alexander Stoletov


Born:   August 10, 1839
Deceased:   May 27, 1896

Eminent Russian physicist, Alexander Stoletov, shed light on photoeffect and magnetic properties of iron.

      

Eminent Russian physicist, Alexander Stoletov, was born to the family of merchant in 1839. Alexanders father owned a grocery shop, and his mother, a well-educated woman, did her best to teach her children Russian language and arithmetic before they started attending a secondary school. Alexander was four, when he learned to read, and he spent days reading, since his health wasnt very good.

In 1849 Alexander entered gymnasium of Vladimir. He left it seven years after with a diploma of honours and gold medal for outstanding achievements in learning. Same year Alexander Stoletov was enrolled to the faculty of physics and mathematics of Moscow State University with state stipend.

In 1860 Alexander finished the university and passed masters examination. However, master thesis defense had to be postponed, because Alexander Stoletov went to Europe for new knowledge. He spent three years in Berlin, Heidelberg and Gottingen, studying physics, and fascinated physicists with his talent.

First scientific research Alexander Stoletov performed abroad. Young scientist found out that dielectric properties of water had no effect on electromagnetic interactions of conductors of electric current. In 1865 Stoletov returned to Russia and soon got a position of a teacher of mathematical physics and physical geography in Moscow State University. Physicist read brilliant lectures and prepared his master dissertation, dedicated to the major problem of electrostatics. Young scientist solved this problem and defended his master thesis in 1869. Following years were spent in effort to create his own physical laboratory Moscow State University had no experimental facilities, and scientists had to go abroad to perform research. In 1871 Alexander Stoletov started working on his doctor dissertation and studied magnetic properties of iron. Creating a theory of how electric machines worked was an important task, since there was no such science as electro-techniques. Stoletov again went to Germany, where discovered some important patterns in magnetism of iron.

Photoeffect
Photoeffect
In 1872 Alexander Stoletov successfully defended doctor dissertation, and following year brought his a position of professor in Moscow University. Same year his physical laboratory finally opened Russian scientists didnt need to go abroad to perform experiment anymore. The physicist read popular lectures, wrote popular scientific papers and supervised a physical society. After defense of doctor dissertation Alexander Stoletov became a world-known scientist he visited opening ceremony of physical laboratory in Cambridge in 1874, and represented Russian science at I World Congress of Electricity in Paris in 1881, where reported on links between electrostatic and electromagnetic values. Stoletov suggested using ohm for electric resistance. In 1888 Alexander Stoletov started studies of photo effect, which was discovered by Hertz the year before. Elegant experiments resulted in a discovery of the law, linking critical pressure, electromotive force of a battery and distance between electrode and net. Later this constant was named after him.

In 1983 three Academy members recommended Stoletov for becoming a member of the Academy of Sciences. However, the President of the Academy refused to sign necessary papers due to unbearable spirits of Alexander Stoletov. Such decision was a hard blow for the physicist, and many scientists sympathized with him due to that unfair situation. Health of the great scientist was weak since his early childhood, and in May 1896 Alexander Stoletov died of pneumonia.

Source: Alhimik.ru

Kizilova Anna


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