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 Alexey Favorsky


Born:   February 20, 1860
Deceased:   August 8, 1945

organic chemist

      

Favorsky Alexey Evgraphovich was a world-famous Russian organic chemist. Future gem of chemistry was born on February 20, 1860 in the Pavlovo village, which was part of Nizhny Novgorod region. Alexey’s father was a local priest. The boy received secondary education in gymnasiums of Nizhny Novgorod and Vologda. In 1878 Alexey Favorsky was admitted to the natural department of the faculty of physics and mathematics of St. Petersburg University. At that time the institution boasted brilliant teachers and researchers: Dmitry Mendeleev, Alexey Butlerov and etc. Four years after the young man finished his studies, but got the position of technician at the organic chemistry department of the university. In 1891 Alexey Favorsky became Master of Science, and only four years later the scientist defended his doctor thesis. The following year Favorsky was appointed professor at his home department. The chemist also worked in St. Petersburg Institute of Chemistry and Technology, between 1897 and 1908. Alexey Favorsky initiated establishment of the Institute of Organic Chemistry and headed that research institution for four years between 1934 and 1938.

 

 

”Isoprene”
Isoprene
Alexey Evgraphovich Favorsky started research while being a student. Alexey Butlerov’s idea of exploring new substances inspired him – the scientist investigated acetylenic hydrocarbons. Two years of searching and hard work, and Favorsky made an important scientific discovery. The scientist found that under some certain conditions acetylenic compound underwent isomeric transformations – molecule’s triple bond either moved closer to centre (monosubstituted acetylene isomerized into a twice-substituted compound), or formed two double bonds. That discovery determined further scientific life of the chemist – Favorsky dedicate his life to studying isomeric transformations in unsaturated compounds.

While performing isomeric transformations of acetylenic hydrocarbons under effects of alcoholic solution of various alkalis, Alexey Favorsky revealed some patterns of intramolecular rearrangements of unsaturated compounds and formulated the rule, which now bears his name (Favorsky’s rule) in 1887. The chemist synthesized several hydrocarbons with triple bond. In 1895 Favorsky discovered a new type of isomerism – a-halogen-ketones transformed into carboxylic acids – thus laid the basis for synthesis of acids, which belonged to acrylic family. In 1900-1905 the scientist discovered the technology for synthesis of tertiary acetylenic spirits, and the world now knows this method under the name of “Favorsky’s reaction”. This reaction helped to develop the technique for synthesis of isoprene and chloroprene rubber. In 1939 Alexey Favorsky suggested synthesizing isoprene on the basis of acetylene and acetone via acetylenic spirit and vynil-dimethylcarbinol.

Alexey Favorsky raised a cohort of eminent researchers, who made an enormous contribution to the world science. The scientist died in St. Petersburg on August 8, 1945.

Source: Krugosvet.ru

Kizilova Anna


Tags: Russian science Russian scientists    








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