Add to favorite
 
Subscribe to our Newsletters Subscribe to our Newsletters Get Daily Updates RSS


Garmon – Russian Accordion
January 18, 2011 14:55


Russian Garmon (garmoshka) is a traditional reed music instrument with bellows and two push-button keyboards. The left keyboard is intended for accompaniment: by pressing a button one makes bass or an entire chord sound. The right keyboard is for playing the melody.

Garmon appeared in Russia somewhat in the first half of the 18th century.

Russian masters started to perfect the Viennese diatonic Garmon in the 1st quarter of the 19th century; it led to creation of the then most widespread two-row Garmon of "Russian" and "German" systems. The pitch of a sound played by pressing a key (button) depended on the direction of the bellows movement, i.e. one and the same button gave sounds of different pitch while compressing and while releasing.

Varieties of garmons created by Russian masters at that time were named after the places of their invention or manufacturing (Tula, Saratov, Tatar, Lebanese, and Cherepovets garmoshkas, etc.). Many of these accordions were adapted for the temperament of Russian, Tatar, Mari and other folk songs.

In the process of further development of Garmon Russian masters created a chromatic two-row diatonic Garmon, with the pitch not depending on the direction of the bellows’ movement.

As the pitch in Viennese Garmon of all versions of tuning system changes depending on the direction of the bellows’ movement, its range is almost 1,5 times more than the range of chromatic Garmon with the same number of keys. But along with this advantage Viennese Garmon has an essential drawback - it is much more difficult to play. Therefore Viennese Garmon has been gradually passing out of use, and playing it nowadays is already extremely limited. As for the diatonic chromatic garmon, due to its limited performing abilities since the 1970s it has stopped meeting heightened cultural requirements of performers and has been used more and more seldom.

Diatonic chromatic Garmon with 25 keys (buttons) for melody (the right hand) and 25 buttons for basses or accompaniment (the left hand) is the most widespread type now.

By the idea of N.Beloborodov (1828-1912) the first chromatic two-row Garmon was created in 1870. As for the Russian three-row chromatic Garmon created by master P. Sterligov in Petersburg in the late 19th – early 20th cc garmonist A.Orlanskiy-Titarenko (1877-1941) named Bayan after the Old Russian singer-poet mentioned in The Song of Igor's Campaign.

Perfection of this instrument in Russia has led to creation of three basic versions of bayans: the ones with ready accompaniment (fixed chords - major and minor triads and seventh chords), with elective accompaniment (the performer plays the necessary chords) and with ready-elective accompaniment (combining fixed and elective chords).

The latter version of bayan is the most comfortable one, though it is more complicated to play than bayan with ready accompaniment.

Sources:
    Russian Wiki
    accordion-nt.spb.ru

Author: Vera Ivanova


Tags:      

Next Previous

You might also find interesting:

Domra, a Lost-and-Found Music Instrument of Ancient Russia The King of Russian Chanson. Arkadi Severnyi Author's Song Genre Kuvikly Fyodor Shalyapin





comments powered by Disqus




Comment on our site


RSS   twitter   facebook   submit

Bookmark and Share

Russian Parliament in Action

search on the map

Music Samples

In Storm (Khrennikov)




TAGS:
Boris Grebenshchikov  Censorship  shale oil   VTB  Russian churches  Prince Harry  Moscow  Advertising Constructions  Russian directors  Erwin Wurm  Peterhof  Archeology  Dmitry Likhachov  St. Petersburg University  Space Flights  M.Video  Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Russia  Moskatov  Spasskaya Fair   Russian journalists  Anton Chekhov  FIFA  Sergei Bodrov  Olympics 2012  luxury travel in Russia  NTV TV Channel  Monuments in Moscow  Russian Cinema  Russian history  Finds  crisis in Russia  Khodynka Park  Urals brand  Russian Actresses  Barnaul  Moscow events  Exhibitions in St. Petersburg  money transfer  Exhibitions in Moscow  Russian Astronauts  Russian Literature  environment  Russian tourism  Cultural Projects  Dmitri Prigov  Painting  Alexey Navalny  Literature  Russian business  Orthodox Church 


Travel Blogs
Top Traveling Sites