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At the turn of the 16th century the unification of Russian lands was completed and dependence on the Golden Horde khans was gone. There came to be the Russian centralized state which unlike the mononational states of the Western Europe was initially formed as multinational.

The second half of the 14th century marked a new uplift in Russian culture. Russian princes being weakened after many years of the Tatar Mongol yoke and feudal disunity at last started joining forces, which resulted in consolidation of the statehood and gave rise to cultural development.

Corvee and quitrent were the forms of peasants political and economic dependence on their feudal lords in the heyday of feudalism and setting of serfdom in Old Russia.

If you're heading to Yusupov Gardens from Sennaya Square, prepare yourself for inevitable ominous atmosphere of Dostoevsky novels: the most "grass-roots" of the central quarters, no matter what was done with it, in fact never changes.

A small garden on the Universitetskaya Embankment can be considered a typical example of St. Petersburg "garden", survived among stone thickets. On the other part, it is spacious enough (if compared with Yekaterina's model "Katkin Sadik" garden and the like), original, time-tested, and located in a place that cannot be passed by.

A garden in front of the Admiralty, right in the heart of the city, looks little resembling to a natural oasis. Alexander Garden is a wide boulevard with very old trees, benches and a fountain in the middle.

If one chooses the next most famous garden after the Summer, it still would not be Mikhailovsky, but younger and more remote Tavrichesky.

Usually when someone hears gardens of St. Petersburg, the first thing he or she remembers is Summer Garden and suburban parks. However, let's try to take a walk over other, no less significant historical gardens of St. Petersburg, the oasis of aristocratic beauty in the bustling center of northern capital. Mikhailovsky Garden is the nearest neighbor and relative of the Summer Garden.

The Princess of Ukok (aka Siberian Ice Maiden) is an amazing find that archeologists unearthed at the Ukok Plateau in the Altai Mountains and become known all around Russia and the world.

As is well-known, birchbark manuscripts are both material and manuscript historical source at the same time. After all it is not only the place where they were found, but also their contents that matters for the history.

The Russian Coat of Arms is one of the major state symbols of Russia, along with the flag and the anthem. When renamed from the RSFSR into the Russian Federation on December 25, 1991, the country reinstated its old pre-revolutionary coat of arms depicting a two-headed eagle. The roots of this symbol are what we tackle upon in this article.

"We demand peace!" the sculptural composition by Vera Mukhina was solemnly unveiled in Moscows Muzeon Park. This unique monument from the Soviet era has not been demonstrated to spectators for more than twenty years.

Borodino Battle is known as the largest battle of the Patriotic War of 1812 between the Russian and French armies; the battle that involved 250 thousand people took place on September 7 (August 26) 1812 at the Village of Borodino, 125 km to the west of Moscow.

Today Russia marks the 67th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany to the Soviet Union in the Second World War in 1945 - the Victory Day. So many words of gratitude for Russian soldiers were said previously, and even more must be said in the future. We decided to make our contribution to this day, collected the best pictures and translated signs about war and victory, grief and memory. So the unique photo collection is now available for you in English. We remember. We are proud.

There are a lot of funny jokes dedicated to Russian people and life in Russia. But only a small number of them can be joined into the whole trend with its own rules and history. "In Soviet Russia" or "The Russian Reversal" is just that unique trend. It was created for describing another, "Red" Russia, but was given a new birth our days.

The season of 2010 became extremely rich for Russian archeologists, who made a great many of surprising and really unique finds. 36 expeditions that worked in Russia and abroad made a number of stunning discoveries, which changed historians notions about the past.

Recently Russian government has introduced another official memorable date the Day of Christening of Russia that is to be marked on July, 28th. The new holiday, however, is not a day off for Russians. So, what is it all about, this date?

Archeology as scientific study of objective historical monuments was well established in Russia not until the 19th century. Describing and collecting archeological monuments, however, started much earlier: relics of religious significance were kept in church vestries, whereas various antique valuables were gathered in tsars treasuries.

By the time of adopting Christianity the Old Rus was already good at wooden sculpture, moulding, and embossing. As for architecture, it surely existed, but it is hardly possible to say now at what stage of development it was, since not a single monument of the pre-Christian epoch has survived: something did not stand the test of time, while the major part was presumably destroyed by people.

From times immemorial bells were treated in quite a special way in Old Rus. Many tales and legends would tell about bells supernatural abilities, such as foretelling and averting danger.

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